Biology plant form

Terms__Definitions

eukarya=………………….domain containing organisms, such as plants and animals, with complex cells
Protista=………………….Eukaryotic Kingdom: unicellular with a few multi-cellular organisms
Fungi, Plantae, Animalia=……………………………Eukaryotic Kingdoms: mostly multicellular organisms
mitochondrion=……………………………………… organelle called the powerhouse of the cell
intron=……………………………… portion of mRNA as transcribed from eukaryotic DNA that is removed by enzymes before the mature mRNA is translated into protein
chloroplast=……………………………………….. organelle containing chlorophyll
transcription=………………………… enzyme-catalyzed assembly of an RNA molecule complementary to a strand of DNA
translation=……………………………… assembly of a protein on the ribosomes, using mRNA to specify the order of amino acids
histone protein=………………………. any of 8 proteins with an overall positive charge that associate in a complex
root system=………………………….. underground and anchors plants (in vascular plants), absorbs water and minerals
shoot system=………………………….. above ground, stems (support), leaves (photosynthesis), flowers (reproduction)
apex (apical)=…………………………. tip
dermal tissue=…………………………. "skin," for protection, may be wax or bark
ground tissue=…………………………………. for storage, photosynthesis, secretion; primary type of tissue
axillary bud=……………………………… lateral shoot apex
meristems=…………………………… undifferentiated cells that can divide indefinitely and give rise to many types of differentiated cells (equivalent to stem cells in animals and people; clumps of small cells with dense cytoplasm and large nuclei)
apical meristem=……………………………….. the growing point at the tip of the root or stem; gives rise to primary tissues
vascular tissue=………………………………… for storage, photosynthesis, secretion
xylem=…………………….. tissue that carries water and dissolved minerals (usually up from roots), inorganic ions; supports plant body
phloem=………………………….. tissue that carries nutrient-containing solution (usually from leaves)
primary meristems=………………………………. cells that contribute to vertical growth
secondary (lateral) meristems=…………………………… cells that contribute to lateral growth
cork cambium=……………………………. secondary tissue - outer bark
vascular cambium=…………………………….. secondary tissue - vascular, produces xylem
epidermis=…………………………….. outer layer, usually one cell thick
cuticle=………………………………. fatty, noncellular layer, waxy, for water retention
guard cells=…………………………………. paired sausage-shaped cells which help open and close stoma
stoma=……………………………… opening for respiration
root hairs=………………………… tubular extensions of individual epidermal cells; increase surface area for absorption
vessels=……………………………… continuous tubes of dead cylindrical cells arranged end-to-end
tracheids=………………………………. dead cells that taper at the end and overlap one another
rays=……………………………….. horizontal rows of xylem for lateral food conduction and storage
transpiration=……………………………… evaporation (diffusion) of water vapor from a plant
sieve cells=………………………………… elongated phloem cells
sieve tube members=………………………………. specialized elongated phloem cells with companion cells
companion cells=……………………………….. cells that help sieve tube members by performing some of their metabolic functions
root cap=…………………………………. protects apical meristem in the root
zone of cell division=……………………………. part of root where cells divide; cuboidal cells with small vacuoles and large central nuclei
zone of elongation=…………………………. part of root where cells lengthen and "grow"
zone of maturation=…………………………….. part of root where cells are differentiated
epidermal cells=…………………………….. cells with thin cuticles, may or may not have roothairs
cortex (root)=……………………………. storage cells interior to the epidermis; larger in food crops
endodermis=…………………………….. single-layer cylinder impregnated with Casparian strip
Casparian strip=……………………………… fatty, water-tight regulating lay within endodermis
stele=……………………………….. all tissues interior to the endodermis
pericycle=………………………………. meristem cells that cause lateral growth (bark, etc.) or branch roots
adventitious roots=………………………………… roots coming from anywhere but the plant's root
prop roots=………………………… roots: keep plant upright
aerial roots=………………………… roots: obtain water from the air
pneumatophores=……………………………. roots: facilitate oxygen uptake
buttress roots=………………………….. roots: lots of stability
primordia=………………………………. bulges capable of developing into leaves, shoots, or flowers
pith=…………………………………. internal ground tissue
cortex (stem)=…………………………….. external ground tissue
leaves=……………………………. main sites of photosynthesis
mysophyll=…………………………………….. tissue between upper and lower epidermis
palisade mesophyll=………………………………… two rows of tightly packed chlorenchyma cells
spongy mesophyll=…………………………….. loosely arranged cells with many air spaces in between